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Bihar Sharif

The ancient Odantapuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. Odatpuri was center of Buddhist culture. Also, Bihar was the headquarters of the magadha kingdom in the medieval period. Later on the headquarter was shifted from Bihar to Patana (current Patna) by Sher Shah Suri and the whole Magadha region was called Bihar.

It served as the capital of the Pala dynasty (10th century AD) and contains a 5th century AD Gupta pillar also Bihar Sharif was the seat of Muslim Governors during Mughal period. Bihar Sharif is noted for its shrine of the sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri (R.A) and there is Urs happens every year in Badi Dargah. Nearby lie the remains of Odantapuri (q.v.), a great vihara, or college of Buddhist learning, from which the name Bihar was derived. Bihar Sharif is also famous for Langot Fair at Baba Maniram Akhara.

Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick settled in Bihar Sharif (India) with his family, and ruled over the region until his assassination on Monday, 13th Zul-Hijjah, 753 Hijri (1353 AD). Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick`s tomb is over a hill known as Pir Pahari in Bihar Sharif. Descendants of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick include the Surname title “Mallicks” from Bihar, India, villages and towns in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal, Nawada, Jamui and Sheikhpura. However, the names of these villages are still of historical importance and for the purpose of record and identification of the Sayyid “Mallicks” whose forefathers hailed from these villages. Sayyid and Mallick are not different, Sayyid’s family is used surname title “Mallicks” in Bihar.

At the time of Sultan Tughlaq (1290 AD-1351 AD), even though the State of Bihar was under the control of Delhi, for all practical purposes, its rulers were autonomous. The Sultan received numerous complaints against the Raja Bithal, the Governor (Subedar) of Bihar, who was not only a tyrant but also a rebel against the Sultan of Delhi.

The Sultan sent his general, Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick, to punish Raja Bithal. After a fierce battle, the Raja was killed and his army was defeated. The conquest of Bihar was a remarkable achievement, and on this occasion, the Sultan conferred upon Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick the title of “Madarul Mulk” means Mallick or Saif-o-Daulat (Administrator and King of Sword and Wealth). It is recorded that the Sultan was so jubilant by this victory, that in his court he himself came down to receive and greet Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick. After an exchange of greetings, Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq said to Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick in Persian (the official language at the time) “Mallicks Baya, Be-nashin” meaning “O King come and sit next to me” and led Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick to his seat. The Sultan bestowed this great honor upon him. Since then, he was called “Mallick Baya”. The Sultan appointed Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick as the governor of the state of Bihar. He chose to settle with his family and relatives in Bihar Sharif.

Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick was a distinguished military general, and an eminent Sufi (saint) as well. He was a descendent of Hazrat Ali (Karrama’llah Wajhahu) and when the Abbasyds persecuted his ancestors, they escaped to Ghazni. He was born and raised in Ghazni. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick received his education and military training in Ghazni and then he came to Delhi to serve under the tutelage of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq, who was famous for his magnificent patronage of intellectuals, scholars, and talented military generals of his time. Besides Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick, Ibn Batuta, the famous traveler and pioneer explorer, and other people like him came from all over the world to serve the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

In Bihar, Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick led many expeditions such as Deora and Khatangi etc., and defeated Raja Baithal and was appointed Governor of Bihar by Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick also served as Governor of Bihar and general for a few years from 1351-1353 AD/751-753 AH, during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Cousin of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. During his reign, he fought his last pitched battles with Raja Hans Kumar and conquer Rohtasgarh Fort.

Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick or Bayyu one of the Great saints of Bihar. The descendants of the eight children of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya multiplied over 600 years and constituted a significant portion of the Muslim community in Bihar. The tomb is said to have built by Sayyid Daud Mallick, The eldest of the seven sons of the saint, who is also buried inside the tomb. The tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick is located in Bihar Sharif, at the hilltop of Pir Pahari, one mile west of the town. The mausoleum is an extraordinary structure of a rare quality of bricks, which have withstood the ravages of time and the unrelenting devastation of weather for the last 600 years.

After 600 years, the structure stands as if it were built in recent days. Besides Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya’s tomb, there are 10 graves of his wife, sons, daughters, grandson, nephew and brother inside the dome. Names of this sons Badruddin Mallick, Sadaruddin Mallick, Mohammad Mohsin Mallick, Sayyid Daud Mallick, one daughter Sayyida Bibi Munehiya, one Nephew, one Brother, one Grandson, one Wife & two sons of the saint Mohammad Ilyas Mallick or Sayyid Suleman Mallick are buried out side of the tomb. But Mallick Mohammad Usman is Died in Jalalabad, Kabul (Afghanistan). The tombs of other family members and companions of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya are lying on the east, west and south sides of the mausoleum.

Due to the high respect and reverence given to the tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya for generations, no one is buried on the north side of the dome. The south side of the burial place is still reserved only for the Sayyid “Mallicks” family members who wish to be buried on Pir Pahari.

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